Recent Changes

Thursday, October 7

  1. page rubric edited ... Taxonomy Wikipedia Score sheet Name Username Username _ Taxa_ Category ... St…
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    Taxonomy Wikipedia
    Score sheet
    Name UsernameUsername _
    Taxa_
    Category
    ...
    Student Evaluation
    Teacher Evaluation
    ...
    grade level (x2)(x2)
    6
    Each category is addressed
    3
    ...
    of explanation (x3)(x3)
    12
    ...
    of explanation (x3)(x3)
    12
    Deadlines met
    3
    Writing mechanics (x2)
    ...
    3 review questions (no more than 4 per page)
    2
    ...
    accurate edits (x3)(x3)
    12
    65
    ...
    Grade = youryour score x
    Total possible points = 200
    Final Grade
    ...
    Some explanations do not contain enough information about the concept and lack supporting details and/or examples.
    Most explanations include enough information about the concept but most don’t include several supporting details and/or examples.
    ...
    and include severalseveral supporting details
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    and include severalseveral supporting details
    Accuracy of explanation (homepage)
    Many mistakes indicate a poor understanding of the concepts
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    Meets required number but most are superficial or contain inaccuracies
    Meets required number and few are superficial or contain inaccuracies
    ...
    required number andand none are
    Meets required number and none are superficial or contain inaccuracies. Some edits introduce new perspectives and/or considerable new information
    Review questions
    (view changes)
    9:51 am

Friday, October 16

Monday, June 1

  1. page home edited Sharon AP Biology Taxonomy Wiki-site The unity and diversity of life An Understanding by Design…
    Sharon AP Biology Taxonomy Wiki-site
    The unity and diversity of life
    An Understanding by Design Unit
    For AP Biology
    Sharon High School
    Teacher: James Dixon
    Introduction:
    This Wikipedia has been created by the AP Biology students of Sharon High School. The AP curriculum requires a great breadth of knowledge about the diversity of life. Students must develop an understanding the levels of classification, the use of classification schemes, the species concept, and the diagnostic characteristics of the various major taxa of life. This last area is a particular problem. The students come in with very little background and the coverage of the material is broad but not deep. At its worst, it can be just a list of characteristics. At its best, we can examine the strategies in which all the taxa of life face common problems of existence.
    This assignment is part of a unit on the unity and diversity of life and provided a means to address the topic of the characteristics of the taxon. Each student was assigned a particular taxa. The student used the textbook as a source and prepared the page for the taxon including basic information about each topic. Students then had to edit the pages. Each student was required to supply one edit per page. They were to add information from internet sources and supply the links. Each student was allowed to supply up to 5 pictures (up to one per page) and up to 5 review questions (up to one per page). This editing process required the students to read each page and research the taxon for more information. In this way, the students were each developing some deeper knowledge about one taxon and familiarity with the other taxa. While this is not ideal for a zoology or botany class, it is the correct level of understanding for the AP Biology curriculum.
    During this process of entering information and editing, I was able to monitor the students’ work by checking the history for the wiki. The students were also able to easily email me and each other. While anyone can view these pages, only students in this course have permission to write or edit on this wiki. I asked students to initial any edits. The topics for each taxa and the assessment rubric are included as pages on the wiki. While the students worked on the wiki mostly at home, we used class time to examine the definition of species through a case study and work with phylogenetic trees and relationships.
    Established Goals:
    AP Biology Themes (all addressed in part):
    I. Science as a Process
    II. Evolution
    III. Energy Transfer
    IV. Continuity and Change
    V. Relationship of Structure to Function
    VI. Regulation
    VII. Interdependence in Nature
    VIII. Science, Technology, and Society
    MCAS:
    2.3 Use cellular evidence (such as cell structure, cell number, and cell reproduction) and modes of nutrition to describe six kingdoms (Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia).
    4.8 Recognize that the body’s systems interact to maintain homeostasis. Describe the basic function of a physiological feedback loop.
    5.1 Explain how evolution is demonstrated by evidence from the fossil record, comparative anatomy, genetics, molecular biology, and examples of natural selection.
    5.2 Describe species as reproductively distinct groups of organisms. Recognize that species are further classified into a hierarchical taxonomic system (kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species) based on morphological, behavioral, and molecular similarities. Describe the role that geographic isolation can play in speciation.
    5.3 Explain how evolution through natural selection can result in changes in biodiversity through the increase or decrease of genetic diversity from a population.
    Essential Questions:
    · How can we use categorization and hierarchical thinking to make sense of the vast diversity of living species?
    · How can different anatomical and physiological strategies help organisms meet the same challenges of life?
    · How can the concept of definition be applied to the species concept?
    · Does our organizational system for the diversity of life imply evolutionary relationship?
    Understandings:
    · Organisms are placed in various taxa based on diagnostic characteristics.
    · Evolutionary relationships can be implied but not proven by classification.
    · Classification is based on human decisions.
    · The definition of species is problematic.
    · All organisms face similar challenges of life but employ a wide array of anatomical and physiological strategies to meet these strategies.
    · These strategies are based on environment and evolutionary history.
    Students will know:
    · The various levels of phylogenetic organization.
    · How diagnostic characteristics are used to organize organisms into categories.
    · The various definitions for species and the problems with each.
    · Explain the various modes of speciation.
    · Explain the various modes of reproductive isolation.
    · Describe how evolutionary relationships are determined by using various forms of evidence.
    · The diagnostic and other important characteristics of selected major taxa.
    Students will be able to do:
    · Interpret phylogentic trees and cladograms.
    · Apply genetic, morphological, ecological and behavioral evidence to classifying organisms and determining evolutionary relationships.
    · Write to and edit wiki pages
    Performance tasks:
    · The Unity and Diversity of Life Wikipedia project
    Other evidence:
    · Unit exam
    · Creating and interpreting cladograms activity
    · “What is a species?” case study/web quest
    Learning plan (for approximately 10 classes):
    · Discussion of classification conundrums (vultures, slime molds etc.).
    · Computer lab for wiki intro and set-up.
    · Discussion of cladograms and phylogenetic trees.
    · Cladogram activity.
    · “What is a species?” case study/web quest (3 classes).
    · Discussion of speciation and reproductive isolating mechanisms.
    · Evidences for evolution and evolutionary relationships.
    · Sharing of wiki pages.
    · Unit exam.
    The taxa and the topics for each are as follows:
    Kingdom level:

    1. Archaea
    2. Bacteria
    ...
    · Reproduction
    · Environmental adaptations
    Kingdom Plantae
    5. Plantae--Mosses
    6. Plantae--Ferns
    ...
    · Reproduction
    · Environmental adaptations
    Kingdom Animalia:
    9. Porifera
    10. Cnidaria
    (view changes)
    10:13 am

Sunday, January 4

  1. page Animalia-Echinodermata edited ... Role of Echinoderms Echinoderms are important parts of their ecosystems. Some asteroids are k…
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    Role of Echinoderms
    Echinoderms are important parts of their ecosystems. Some asteroids are keystone species (are abundant in the community and greatly influence the community structure by the role that they play in the community-their niche). Seas urchins can become too abundant and overgraze their habitat if their populations are not contolled by predators. Some echinoderms have commensal relationships with other species who feed on the leftovers of their prey. For humans, echinoderms are often used in research because they are easy to maintain in the lab and produce a lot of eggs. Humans also eat some echinoderms. For example sea urchin eggs are often used in sushi (8). (RK)
    Review
    1.
    Review1. Suprisingly, the
    2. Explain the process of trapping food and digestion of asteroids. How is this different from the other classes of echinoderms? (SES)
    3. Describe the ways that Echinoderms can reproduce. What is necessary for asexual reproduction? (DP)
    (view changes)
    1:37 pm

Saturday, December 20

  1. page Animalia-Chordata--Aves edited ... Birds are known for their diverse mating rituals (ER), which usually involve displaying their …
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    Birds are known for their diverse mating rituals (ER), which usually involve displaying their feathers and repertoires (songs). It has been proven that there is a relationship between fitness and repertoires. This is because females prefer males with longer repertoires, and the longer the repertoire, the older the male. Longer repertoires also stimulate females more. If a female chooses a more experienced male, they will mate earlier in the season, giving their offspring a better chance of survival. The video below illustrates the mating ritual of the Lyre bird, which imitates the songs of surrounding birds. (ER) In many species the skill of a males' nest building ability is a sign of his suitability as a mate. Some species, such as the European house wren, will build up to 12 nests to attract a female mate.(13) (BMB)
    Birds build nests in which to incubate their eggs. There are four basic parts to an egg: the yolk, the germinal disc, the albumen (egg white), and the shell. The yolk has a lot of fat and proteins, making it a rich source of nutrition for the bird embryo (an embryo is a developing organism). The yolk is surrounded by membranes with blood vessels that transport nutrients from the mother's body to the young. The germinal disc is on the surface of the yolk. It has the female parent's nucleus and the embryo's DNA, if the egg is a fertilized one (if it is not, it only has the mother's DNA). The albumen is made up of proteins that provide the developing chick with water and protein. The shell, in addition to protecting the embryo, also has pores that allow water to excess water to leave the shell (7) [HZ]. Because the size of an egg is large, it is difficult for a female to retain more than one egg at a time; it would make flying harder and require much more energy from the mother. It is commonly misbelieved that birds’ eggs are fragile. In reality, birds' eggs are engineered to withstand a lot pressure so they can survive under the weight of their mother. (13) (BMB)
    I mprintingImprinting
    Imprinting is learning limited to a specific time period in an animal’s life and is generally irreversible. An example is in Graylag geese. They have no innate sense of mother, so they therefore respond to and identify with the first object they encounter. Scientist Konrad Lorenz experimented with these geese and was identified as their mother during their sensitive period. They immediately recognized themselves as humans, Lorenz as their mother, and behaved much like him. Also, most birds must learn their repertoires during the sensitive period, a limited phase in an animal’s development where learning specific behaviors take place. If a bird never learns its repertoire during this period, it fails to learn the song of its species. Song sparrows for example need to hear and observe an adult's song during a specific sensitive period (SES 15). This allows the bird to create a mental template of the adult song (SES 15). After this, they use the template to start singing the song themselves (SES 15). They must be able to hear themselves practicing the song, or else the song will not come out correctly in the end (SES 15).
    Self-Protection
    ...
    When you look up, especially around fall, it’s hard not to see birds in the sky. This is because they partake in seasonal migration, regular movement over relatively long distances. Birds use three mechanisms to help in migration. Piloting is used for short distance migration, where birds recognize familiar landmarks to find their way. Orientation is when birds detect compass directions and travel in a straight line until they reach a certain point or their destination. The most complex of the migration skills is navigation. This is the mechanism most commonly used by birds, where they determine their present location in relation to others and use orientation to get there. The bird that travels the farthest is the Arctic Tern, which completes a roundtrip between the north and south pole each year. No two species of birds every follow the same migration route from beginning to end. The distance traveled, speed of the bird, and direction of flying all play a great role in which route the species are bird takes. For North American birds they are four major "flyways", geographic regions in which migrations routes can be found, the Atlantic, the Mississippi, the Central, and the Pacific.(12, GR)
    Review Questions
    ...
    related? (SV)
    List 4 ways birds protect themselves from danger (VM)
    ...
    their advantage(SJB)
    What parts of a bird's brain are highly developed? Why do you think this is? (DP)
    Sources:
    (view changes)
    7:20 pm

Friday, December 19

  1. page Animalia-Chordata--Aves edited ... (9) "bird." . 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 07 Dec. 2008 <http://www.brit…
    ...
    (9) "bird." . 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 07 Dec. 2008 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/66391/bird>.
    (10) “Anatomy of Animals.” 7 December 2008. <http://universe-review.ca/R10-33-anatomy.htm.>
    ...
    Dec. 2008 <http://tolweb.org/onlinecontributors/app?page=viewimagedata&service=external&sp=31869>.<http://tolweb.org/Aves>.
    (12) "North American Migration Flyways.". 2001. 7 Dec. 2008 <http://www.birdnature.com/flyways.html>.
    (13) Davies, Gareth H. "Parenthood."http://www.pbs.org/lifeofbirds/home/index.html
    (view changes)
    5:36 pm
  2. page Animalia-Nematoda edited ... They have a complete digestive tract containing a mouth and an anus. Nutrients are transported…
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    They have a complete digestive tract containing a mouth and an anus. Nutrients are transported throughout body via fluid in pseudocoelom (a body cavity partially lined by mesoderm). Nematodes can either be carnivorous (“meat-eaters”), herbivorous (“plant-eaters”) or parasitic, which means that they get nutrients from the body of another organism. The digestive process of a nematode begins in the mouth, which eventually branches into a muscular pharynx. The muscular pharynx acts as a passageway by pushing and delivering food to other intestines of the nematode. The digestive process starts off externally (outside) in a nematode but then ends internally (inside) a nematode. (Jesse Carmen) [2]
    Nematodes have a three part digestive system consisting of the stomodeum (mouth and lips), the intestine (digestive cavity), and proctodeum (excretory organs). (3)(RJS)
    {webkit-fake-url://999F85AF-E396-4ED0-AA98-9848EAAD4705/080221_sarid_nematode.jpg} {080221_sarid_nematode.jpg}
    {webkit-fake-url://999F85AF-E396-4ED0-AA98-9848EAAD4705/080221_sarid_nematode.jpg} A
    {080221_sarid_nematode.jpg} A SEM of
    C. Sensing the environment
    Many nematodes live in moist soil and decomposing organic matter on bottoms of lakes and oceans. They are found in most aquatic habitats, wet soil, moist tissues of plants, and in body fluids and tissues of animals. The predator nematodes attack roots of plants in agricultural fields. These free-living (non-parasitic) worms play an important role in decomposition and nutrient cycling.
    (view changes)
    11:02 am
  3. page Animalia-Nematoda edited ... They have a complete digestive tract containing a mouth and an anus. Nutrients are transported…
    ...
    They have a complete digestive tract containing a mouth and an anus. Nutrients are transported throughout body via fluid in pseudocoelom (a body cavity partially lined by mesoderm). Nematodes can either be carnivorous (“meat-eaters”), herbivorous (“plant-eaters”) or parasitic, which means that they get nutrients from the body of another organism. The digestive process of a nematode begins in the mouth, which eventually branches into a muscular pharynx. The muscular pharynx acts as a passageway by pushing and delivering food to other intestines of the nematode. The digestive process starts off externally (outside) in a nematode but then ends internally (inside) a nematode. (Jesse Carmen) [2]
    Nematodes have a three part digestive system consisting of the stomodeum (mouth and lips), the intestine (digestive cavity), and proctodeum (excretory organs). (3)(RJS)
    {080221_sarid_nematode.jpg}{webkit-fake-url://999F85AF-E396-4ED0-AA98-9848EAAD4705/080221_sarid_nematode.jpg} {080221_sarid_nematode.jpg}
    {webkit-fake-url://999F85AF-E396-4ED0-AA98-9848EAAD4705/080221_sarid_nematode.jpg} A SEM of the tip of a nematode. Nematodes cause over $70 billion per year in damage to crops. (18) (ER)
    C. Sensing the environment
    Many nematodes live in moist soil and decomposing organic matter on bottoms of lakes and oceans. They are found in most aquatic habitats, wet soil, moist tissues of plants, and in body fluids and tissues of animals. The predator nematodes attack roots of plants in agricultural fields. These free-living (non-parasitic) worms play an important role in decomposition and nutrient cycling.
    (view changes)
    10:59 am

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